Vi er flyttet!

Iran 1979

Linkbox om den iranske revolution og kontrarevolution 1978-1979 - og derefter.
(Tidsskriftcentret, januar 2009)

Efter massedemonstrationer gennem 1978 vendt mod shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavis diktatur, vender ayatollah Khomeini 1. februar 1979 tilbage fra eksil til Teheran. 11. februar sendes shahen i eksil og 1. april oprettes den islamiske republik.

Se også linkbox: Oprøret i Iran 2009 (

På dansk (og norsk/svensk)

Leksikon for det 21. århundrede
Iran. Scroll ned til afsnit 1979 Exit Shah
Den iranske revolusjon. Norsk artikel m. links mest til BBC-kilder.

Den iranske revolution 1979
Af Maryam Poya (Internationale Socialisters Forlag, 1989, 49 sider)
"Den iranske arbejderklasse udgjorde hovedkraften i kampen for at bringe shahens rædselsregime til fald. Men magten faldt ikke i arbejdernes hænder ... Til syvende og sidst blev arbejderne underlagt et nyt islamisk regime, under hvilket deres rettigheder og styrkepositioner ikke var større - og på nogle meget væsentlige områder endda mindre - end dem, de havde haft under Shahen."

Venstresida besto ikke testen (nr.4, 2006)
"Forklaringen på Khomeinis og presteskapets seier var først og fremst at den iranske venstresida ikke besto testen de sto overfor i denne revolusjonære situasjonen."
Arbeidermakten lå i shoraene. Af Bjørn Østby (nr.4, 2006)
"Bjørn Østby forteller historien og ser også på hvorfor Ayatollah Khomeini seiret. En seier som uten tvil har vært en stor inspirasjon for islamisters politiske framganger. En vanlig forklaring på presteskapets seier er at Iran var spesielt på grunn av islams grep om befolkningen. Dette er en lite overbevisende forklaring."

Irans revolution 1977-79 – interaktion og transformation (pdf). Af Peter Seeberg (nr.18, 2008)
"Det er artiklens synspunkt, at revolutionen må opfattes som en kompleks og dynamisk proces, som rummede en stor grad af egendynamik og uforudsigelighed, netop derved muliggjorde radikale brud og nykonstruktioner og fik uforudsete følger."
Om Iran ur tidskriften Fjärde Internationalen (pdf)
"Nedan redovisas de texter om Iran som publicerade i tidskriften Fjärde Internationalen under åren 1979-1983 och handlar om störtandet av shahen om tiden närmast därefter."

Den iranske revolution, del 1-2 (1979). Af Ted Grant (februar 2009)
"Artikel om den iranske revolution, som Ted Grant skrev i februar 1979, netop som Khomeini var vendt tilbage fra sit eksil i Paris."

A video broadcast from the 1979 in Tehran by a CBC reporter talking about the current situation at that time.

Socialistisk Arbejderavis
Revolutionen i Iran 1979: 30 år efter. Af Jørgen Lund (nr.286, 12. februar 2009)
"Det vigtigste ved det moderne Irans historie er en historie om hurtige ændringer. Og ikke mindst erfaringerne fra den iranske revolution i 1979, historien op til den og om kontrarevolutionen bagefter."

In English
Iranian Revolution

International Encyclopedia of Revolution and Protest
Iranian Revolution 1979 (pdf). By Nandini Bhattacharya (2009, 7 pages)

On the 30th anniversary of the Iranian Revolution. By Torab Saleth (2009)
"The story of the Iranian Islamic Revolution is first and foremost the story of how a counter-revolution succeeded in hijacking a genuine popular revolution by being placed at its leadership."
Class nature of the Iranian regime (pdf). By Torab Saleth (Issue 43, December 2007)
"Let us also not forget, given the degree of participation by the masses, the Iranian Revolution of 1977-79 was one of the most important revolutions of the 20th century."

Fifth International
The tragedy of the Iranian Revolution: lessons for today. By Jens-Hugo Nyberg (Vol.3, Issue 2, Spring 2009)
"... the appalling betrayal of the mass struggle by the Stalinist leadership led to the formation of Iran’s reactionary theocratic state."

In Defence of Marxism
Thirty years since the Iranian revolution. By Fred Weston (11 February 2009)
"The media has been highlighting it as an ’Islamic revolution’, when in actual fact what we witnessed thirty years ago was a genuine workers’ revolution that was hijacked by the reactionary Ayatollahs."
The Iranian Revolution: Past, present and future. By Dr. Zayar (2000)
"This book represents an important contribution to our understanding of the Iranian revolution ... Dr. Zayar, quoting a wealth of original sources, proves beyond a shadow of doubt that the movement of 1979 was a proletarian revolution which was betrayed by the leadership, leading to a counter-revolution in which the reactionary mullahs seized power by stepping into a power vacuum."
Revolution and counter-revolution in Iran: A Marxist view, Part One + Part Two. By Saber Nikbeen (1983)
"This article written in 1983 by Iranian Marxists who had actively participated in the revolution gives an excellent analysis of the whole process."
The Iranian revolution. By Ted Grant (1979)
"This 1979 article by Ted Grant explains how the hated regime of the Shah was overthrown by a workers’ revolution, and how, unfortunately, the revolution was hijacked by the fundamentalist mullahs."

Insurgent Notes
Anti-imperialism and the Iranian revolution: Fetters of the past, potential for the future (pdf). By the Editors (Issue 4, August 2011, 12. p.)
"This article attempts to discuss how, in the years leading up to the Iranian Revolution, objective and subjective factors contributed to the development of an ideology that was an amalgam of socialism, nationalism, and religious imagery which can broadly be described as a form of third-world populism."

International Socialism
Rupture and revolt in Iran. By Peyman Jafari (Issue 124, Autumn 124, 2009, p.95-136)
"The post-election crisis was a product of an unprecedented rupture in the ruling class on the one hand and a huge mobilisation from below on the other. This article aims to put both developments in a historical perspective and provide an understanding of the opportunities and pitfalls facing the revolutionary left."
Persian proletariat. By Naz Massoumi (Issue 115, Summer 2007). Review of Andreas Malm and Shora Esmailian, Iran on the Brink: Rising Workers and Threats of War (Pluto, 2007)
The Iranian experience. Section in: The prophet and the proletariat. By Chris Harman (Issue 64, Autumn 1994)
"The victory of Khomeini’s forces in Iran was not, then, inevitable, and neither does it prove that Islamism is a uniquely reactionary force against which the left must be prepared to unite with the devil (or rather, the Great Satan) of imperialism and its local allies. It merely confirms that, in the absence of independent working class leadership, revolutionary upheaval can give way to more than one form of the restabilisation of bourgeois rule under a repressive, authoritarian, one party state."

International Socialist Review
The Iranian Revolution. By Saman Sepehri (Issue 9, August-September 2000)
"Although the Iranian revolution of 1979 resulted in the installation of Ayatollah Khomeini and the Islamic Republic, it was the mobilization of the working class and the poor that brought the Shah’s regime to its knees."
Iran at the crossroads. By Saman Sepehri (Issue 9, August-September 2000)
"Iran has never been the Islamic monolith portrayed by the West. There has been resistance and struggle in Iran throughout the period of the Islamic regime’s rule."
1978-1979: The Iranian Revolution. By Michael Schmidt (2006)
"A history and analysis of the revolution in which socialists aligned themselves with Islamists to overthrow the West-backed Shah. Following the success of the revolution, the Islamists instituted a theocratic dictatorship and wiped out the workers’ movement and the left."
The working class in Iran: some background - class struggles from 1979-1989. By Mostafa Saber (1990)
"Excerts from Mostafa Saber’s A Brief Look at the Situation of the Working Class in Iran (London & Stockholm, 1990); a short description of workers’ history and conditions - and their struggles during and following the 1979 Revolution."

Middle East Report
Why the Islamic Republic has survived. By Ervand Abrahamian (Issue 250, Spring 2009)
"For 30 years, populism has managed to blunt the sharp edge of class politics. It may not do so in the future."
The revolution’s first decade. By Fred Halliday (Middle East Report, Issue 156, January-February 1989). Artiklen er ikke online p.t.
"If the revolution itself was a surprise, destroying an apparently strong and capable regime and bringing a most unexpected clerical leadership to power, its subsequent course has also contained quite a few unanticipated elements."

MR Zine
The excess of the left in Iran. By Nathan Coombs (27.6.2010). Review of Maziar Behrooz, Rebels with a Cause: The Failure of the Left in Iran (I.B. Tauris, 2000)
"Under the influence of Third-Worldist revolutionary theory and later postmodern identity politics, they ceded their moral mission to the Islamists."

New Left Review
The Iranian Revolution and its implications (pdf). Interview with Fred Halliday (Issue 166, November-December 1987, p.29-37)

New Internationalist
- Theme: Inside Iran (No.398, March 2007)
"This issue has been conceived from the start as one that would give Iranians the chance to communicate directly with our mainly Western readership."
See also: Iran: The facts

New Politics
Revisiting Foucault and the Iranian Revolution: The seductions of Islamism. By Janet Afary and Kevin B. Anderson (Vol.10, No.1, Whole No.37, Summer 2004)
"Progressive and leftist intellectuals around the world were initially very divided in their assessments of the Iranian Revolution. While they supported the overthrow of the shah, they were usually less enthusiastic about the notion of an Islamic republic. Foucault visited and wrote on Iran during this period, a period when he was at the height of his intellectual powers."

News and Letters
What has happened to the Iranian revolution? (1981). By Raya Dunayevskaya (April-May 2009)
"Has it already run its course into its opposite, counter-revolution? Or can it be saved and deepened?"

Permanent Revolution
The Shoras and the Shah. By Mark Hoskisson (1987). Review of Assef Bayat’s book: Workers and Revolution in Iran (Zed Books, 1987)
"On the 30th anniversary of the Iranian revolution we republish this assessment of the revolutionary potential of the movement."
Five years of the Iranian Revolution. By Mark Harrison (1984)
"The counter-revolution in Iran began on a national scale as early as August 1979. It was completed in the period between June 1981 and mid 1982."
Iranian Revolution 1978-81
"This is a series of articles written by Permanent Revolution supporters during the Iranian revolution of 1978-81."

Red Pepper
Red Shi’ism, Iran and the Islamist revolution. By Alastair Crooke (17 October 2009)
"From the Iranian revolution to the Palestinian struggle, it has often been Islamic ideas that have inspired resistance to imperialism. Here, Alastair Crooke argues that the left needs a more complex understanding of the thinking, critical forms of political Islam. Saeed Rahnema responds saying that Alistair Crooke’s understanding of the Iranian revolution and recent events is deeply flawed and Azar Majedi argues Alastair Crooke’s glorification of the Islamist movement is based on distortions and falsification."
Women of the revolution (Jan/Feb 2009)
"Thirty years after the toppling of the Shah in Iran, Azar Sheibani looks at how Iranian women have defied the reign of misogynist terror."

Socialist Register
The working class and the islamic state in Iran. By Haideh Moghissi and Saeed Rahnema (2001, p.197-218)
"In all the major political developments in twentieth-century Iran, from the constitutional revolution of 1906-11 and the nationalization of the oil industry in early 1950s to the political upheavals of early 1960s and the 1979 revolution, workers were major participants and demonstrated a high level of militancy. "
One revolution or two? The Iranian Revolution and the Islamic Republic. By Val Moghadam (1989, p.74-101)
"In this essay I have tried to show the importance of distinguishing between the Revolution and the regime. The first was a popular, populist, political rupture; the second is proof positive that an anti-imperialist, nonaligned petty-bourgeoisie can be profoundly reactionary and wildly at odds with the socialist project."

Socialist Review
Iran: from Shah to Ayatollah (February 2009)
"With the failure of the ’war on terror’ has come an emboldened, increasingly influential Iran. But as world leaders look for ways to exert their authority on the country, Naz Massoumi looks at Iran’s revolutionary history and its repeated rejection of imperialism."

Socialist Worker (UK)
Iran’s revolution. By Viv Smith (Issue 2240, 26 February 2011)
"Iranian workers could have taken power when they overthrew their hated ruler, the Shah, in 1979 – but failings of the left helped to hand power to other forces."
Iran’s 1979 revolution (Issue 2135, 24 January 2009)
"Thirty years ago Iran’s revolt struck a blow against US imperialism and showed the power of workers in the Middle East, writes Simon Basketter."

Weekly Worker
Political legacy of hostage crisis (Issue 1008, May 1, 2014)
"The 1979 seizure of the US embassy in Tehran had nothing to do with ‘anti-imperialism’, argues Yassamine Mather."
Rewriting history (Issue 759, March 5, 2009)
"Official communists and some leftists supported the reactionary Khomeini regime. Homayoun Azad examines the division in Iran’s left three decades ago."
Pilot becomes hijacker (Issue 758, February 26, 2009)
"Torab Saleth, a participant in the 1979 Iranian revolution, charts how ayatollah Khomeini rose from obscurity to lead the anti-shah mass movement and come to power in a counterrevolution."
Islamic revolution or counterrevolution (Issue 756, February 12, 2009)
"On the 30th anniversary of the Iranian revolution, Torab Saleth examines its historical roots."
Oil workers in the Iranian revolution (Issue 748, December 4, 2008)
"The oil workers’ strike of 1978 and early 1979 played a crucial part in the overthrow of the shah’s regime in Iran. On the 30th anniversary of the strike we publish a translation of an interview with Ali Pichgah, one of the founding members of the oil workers’ shora (council) ..."

Workers Liberty
- Theme: Revolution and counter-revolution 1978-9 (pdf) (Vol.3, No.5, June 2006)
"The Iranian revolution 1978-79 was one of the seminal events of the twentieth century, rich in lessons for working-class socialist ... Yet this movement was smashed by the theocracy that took the place of the monarchy. In a three part article Paul Hampton tells the story."
Islamism and the left in the Iranian revolution. By Mehdi Kia (Vol.2, No.2, March 2002)
"In 1979 Iran saw millions on the streets, and a general strike, in the overthrow of the huge, despotic military and police apparatus of the Shah (king), the USA’s strongest ally in the region. It was a great anti-imperialist revolution. Or... was it a counter-revolution?"

World Socialist Web Site
The tragedy of the Iranian revolution. By Keith Jones (11 February 2009)
"The tragedy of the Iranian revolution that toppled the Shah’s dictatorship 30 years ago is that the working class proved incapable of assuming a political role commensurate with its social weight in the struggle. For this, Stalinism is responsible."

Se også:
Iran’s past and present (Jacobin: Reason in Revolt, 20 April 2017). Interview with Ervand Abrahamian: "Why has the history of Iran’s left been erased?"
- Linkbox: Oprøret i Iran 2009 (

Emneindeks: Irak/Afghanistan/Iran
Kort URL:
Emneord: Iranske revolution,
Variantord: iranien, persiske, persien,


Gaia: tidsskrift for international solidaritet (nr.81, forår 2017, 31 s.). Kvartalstidsskrift online med artikler om Trump og nyliberalismen, Etiopien, Cuba, Filippinerne, Israel og Columbia.

Against the Current (Issue 188, May-June 2017). Amerikansk socialistisk tidsskrift online med artikler bl.a. om Trumps politik, Latinamerikas højredrejning, Den Russiske Revolution og arbejderdemokrati + mange boganmeldelser.

Kritisk Debat (17. april 2017). Online med 16 artikler, bl.a. om Socialdemokraterne og højrepopulismen, Latinamerika, Frankrig, Indien, samt en længere artikel af Göran Therborn om ulighedens dynamik (fra New Left Review).

International Socialism (Issue 154, Spring 2017, 223 p.). Britisk kvartalstidsskrift online med artikler bl.a om Donald Trump og den neoliberalistiske verdensorden, antisemitisme og højrefløjen, den russiske revolution og Lenins April-teser, klasseanalyse, Frantz Fanon, Engels og menneskets forhistorie + boganmeldelser.

Se også:
Nyeste links på Modkraft Biblioteket
Nogle af de nyeste links tilføjet på Tidslinjen og linksamlinger på Modkraft Bibliotekets sider.

Aktuelle links


Links med en marxistisk økonomisk blogger, nyere marxistiske bøger og socialistiske konferenceoplæg.

Michael Robert - blogging from a Marxist economist
"First-rate Marxist political economy, deployed for both analysis and polemic, lucidly explained and supported by illuminating graphs and tables."

Marxist books on the global financial crisis and capitalism
Linkbox med et udvalg af nyere marxistiske bøger på engelsk. Med anmeldelser, debat og interviews - og nye bøger (2016) af Michael Roberts og Anwar Shaikh.

Radical economic theories of the current economic crisis (pdf, 23 sider)
Union of Radical Political Economics, sommerkonference 2012.
Med bidrag fra Steve Keen, Andrew Kliman, David M. Kotz, Arthur MacEwan, Fred Moseley, Thomas I. Palley, Jack Rasmus, Michael Roberts, Anwar Shaikh og Richard Wolff.


Af Nathan Schneider

Ingen ledere, ingen vold

28. februar | Hvad indebærer begrebet om en mangfoldighed af taktikker for Occupy Wall Street? Således spørger Nathan Schneider, der selv er med i bevægelsen, i den nye bog »Vi er de 99%«.

25. februar
Folkedrabets moralske historie

23. februar
Assad-regimets krig mod egen befolkning

20. februar
»Tom« har forladt os


Af Camilla Tved

10 gode grunde til at se ”10 timer til Paradis”

19. februar | Den meget omtalte og roste spillefilmsdebut fra Mads Mathiesen gør det nemt for publikum. Læs her hvorfor en af QueerKrafts anmeldere blev blød i knæene og nu ønsker sig en (...)

7 kommentarer

17. februar
Queerfeministisk antiracistisk kritik

11. februar
Anders Behring Breivik og kampen om forklaringen

7. februar
Arabiske kvinders kamp i skyggen af islamisternes valgsejre


Af Ulrikke Moustgaard, Kvinfo

»Kønskvoter styrker konkurrenceevnen«

27. februar | Direktøren i det norske Finansnæringens Arbeidsgiverforening mener, at kønskvoter er det bedste, der er sket for Norges globale konkurrencedygtighed.

24. februar
Faglig énmandshær er død

22. februar
Støt de græske stålarbejdere

19. februar
Lønarbejderne skal tilbage til centrum-venstre!


Af Sune Hundebøll

Løb i varmen

27. februar | Mens vi udfordres af februarkulden, har løbere sat hinanden i stævne nær Tindouf i Algeriet. Deres udfordring er varmen og 42,195 kilometers løb gennem ørkenen.

24. februar
Kontrafon: fra Nørrebros undergrund til P3

22. februar
KODA freder YouTube

22. februar
Piratradio på standby af frygt for myndighederne


Af Rina Ronja Kari

Så går det løs igen

29. februar | 10:40

Af Elizabeth Japsen

Avantgardisten Holberg anno 1721 og 8 marts

28. februar | 09:23

1 kommentarer

Af Karen Helveg Petersen

»De faktiske forhold i jernindustrien…«

27. februar | 17:01

4 kommentarer

Af Søren Søndergaard


27. februar | 08:52

2 kommentarer

Af Henrik Chulu

Digitalt forår

27. februar | 01:22

4 kommentarer

Af Lise Jonassen

Vi er ikke svage - vi har bare ikke arbejde

26.februar | 11:57

2 kommentarer

Stop ACTA nu Demonstration 25-02-2012

Billeder fra demoen mod ACTA lørdag d. 25/2-2012

Lavet af Filip S -


Seneste kommentarer

Henrik Chulu | Jens Voldby Crumlin | kl. 09:13
Kodeordene for et nyt samfundssystem er en ny økonomi som er frigjort fra (...)

Kontradoxa | amalie skram | kl. 00:16
@Grølheim Hvem og hvad giver dig din absurde tro på, at Assad-regimet (...)

Saila Naomi Stausholm | Saila Naomi Stausholm | kl. 23:41
Hej alle, mange tak for jeres kommentarer. Mht debatten om mig/SF’ere på (...)

Saila Naomi Stausholm | Saila Naomi Stausholm | kl. 23:31
Hej alle, lige lidt respons herfra - igen tak for jeres kommentarer. Mht (...)

Kontradoxa | Grølheim | kl. 21:30
@amalie; Jeg synes denne råben "konspirationsteoretikere" bliver mere og (...)

QueerKraft | Karl | kl. 15:01
Enig med Karen. Og så tror jeg at pointen med klummen både er at ærgre sig (...)

Kontradoxa | peter | kl. 14:25
@e lykke Fordi nogle oprørere i Libyen opfører sig som racistiske svin (...)

Kontradoxa | peter | kl. 14:23
@Amalie Skram Helt enig. Det er vildt grotesk, at der findes folk der (...)

Karen Helveg Petersen | Johannes | kl. 14:08
Man bliver jo næsten nødt til at spørge, af ren nysgerrighed (eller (...)

Jakob Lindblom | Bente | kl. 13:44
Nej jeg vil ikke slappe af Jacob. For jo du siger en hel masse.. Du eller I (...)

Dagen i dag

Se flere på

Dem, der ønsker at opgive frihed for sikkerhed, vil ikke få, og fortjener ejheller, nogen af delene.

Thomas Jefferson . USAs tredje præsident (1743-1826)

Flere citater