Vi er flyttet!

Marx & Engels - og miljøet

Linkbox: Appendix til emnelisten ’Klimaet og den globale opvamning’, med artikler om kritikken mod Marx og Engels for mangelfuld miljøforståelse. Primært af/om John Bellamy Foster (’Marx’s Ecology: Materialism and Nature’, Monthly Review Press, 2000) og Paul Burkett (’Marx and Nature: A Red and Green Perspective’, MacMillan, 1999).
Bjarne A. Frandsen, Modkraft Biblioteket, december 2008. Revideret november 2014.

På dansk
Sites og temaer
In English
Resources and documentation
Progressive sites and articles
Appendix: Marx & Engels - og miljøet
- Appendix: Klimaskepsis

På dansk (og norsk)

Rødt!: Marxistisk Tidsskrift
Kapital og natur. Eit intervju med Paul Burkett av João Aguiar (nr.2, 2008)
"I strid med mange tolkingar studerte og inkluderte Marx ei økologisk analyse i Kapitalen."

Socialistisk Information
- Svend Vestergaard Jensen: Om Marx, naturen og miljøet (nr.233, marts 2010, s.32-37)
"Mange tror, at den klassiske marxisme repræsenterer en uhæmmet vækstbegejstring uden gnist af økologisk forståelse. Det er faktisk helt forkert, forklarer Svend Vestergaard Jensen i disse noter om marxismen og forholdet til naturgrundlaget. "
- John Bellamy Foster: Det Kommunistiske Manifest: et anti-økologisk kampskrift? (nr.118, april 1998, s.28-29)
"Eller grundlaget for en forståelse af menneskets vekselvirkning med naturen."

- John Bellamy Foster: Marx og den globale miljøkrise (nr.1, februar 2008)
"Det er almindeligt at betragte marxismen som en miljøfjendtlig filosofi. Men i virkeligheden var Marx og Engels pionerer inden for den økologiske tænkning, forklarer tidsskriftet Monthly Reviews redaktør John Bellamy Foster i denne artikel." Artiklen er også bragt i Socialistisk Arbejderavis (nr.280, 3. juli 2008)
- Terie Valen: Marxisme og økologi (nr.1, marts 2001). Anmeldelse af John Bellamy Fosters bog Marx’ Ecology: Materialism and Nature (Monthly Review Press, 2000). Artiklen er p.t. ikke online.

På engelsk

Against the Current
- Michael Livingston: Marx on the planet (No.113, November-December 2004 ). Review of John Bellamy Foster, Marx’s Ecology: Materialism and Nature (Monthly Review Press, 2000)
- John Bellamy Foster: Nature and the Communist Manifesto (No.72, January-February 1998)
"Most contemporary commentators on Marx and Engels and the environment have been highly critical of the founders of historical materialism."

American Journal of Sociology
- John Bellamy Foster: Marx’s theory of metabolic rift: Classical foundations for environmental sociology (pdf) (Vol.105, No.2, September 1999, p.366-405; online at
"This article addresses a paradox: on the one hand, environmental sociology, as currently developed, is closely associated with the thesis that the classical sociological tradition is devoid of systematic insights into environmental problems; on the other hand, evidence of crucial classical contributions in this area, particularly in Marx, but also in Weber, Durkheim, and others, is too abundant to be convincingly denied."

Freedom Socialist
Marx and Engels on ecology (Vol.26, No.6, December 2005-January 2006)
"The slander that Marxism has little to say about the environment persists. In reality, Karl Marx and Frederick Engels addressed these concerns in nearly everything they wrote ... What follows is only a small selection of their writing on the subject."

International Handbook of Environmental Sociology
Edited by Michael Redclift and Graham Woodgate (Edward Elgar, 2010, p.106-120; online at
- John Bellamy Foster: Marx’s ecology and its historical significance (pdf)
"Due to mounting evidence, Marx’s ecological contributions are increasingly acknowledged. Yet not everyone is convinced of their significance."

International Socialism
- John Bellamy Foster: Marx’s ecology in historical perspective (Issue 96, Autumn 2002, p.71-86)
"JB Foster draws on his excellent recent book, Marx’s Ecology, in order to give a devasting reply to those who argue that Marx and the Marxist tradition have had little to say on environmental and ecological issues." See also review of JB Foster’s book in Socialist Review (Issue 244, September 2000)

Karl Marx’s Grundrisse
Edited by Marcelo Musto (Routledge, 2008, p.93-106; online at
- John Bellamy Foster: Marx’s Grundrisse and the ecological contradictions of capitalism (pdf)
"Recent research has revealed that an ecological–materialist critique was embedded in all of Marx’s work ... The Grundrisse has therefore become an indispensable means of unifying Marx’s overall analysis. It not only stands chronologically between his early writings and Capital, but also constitutes a conceptual bridge between the two."

Marx & Ecology
(Calicut, Black Pepper Books, December 2013, 119 p.)
Collection of essays by John Bellamy Foster, p.5-65 (Monthly Review 2013 + 2011) + Michael Malkin, p.66-119 (Weekly Worker, 2000)

Monthly Review
- Subject: Marxist Ecology
- John Bellamy Foster and Brett Clark: Marx’s Ecology and the Left (Vol.68, No.2, June 2016)
"... the notion of Marx’s anti-ecological perspective became deeply rooted in Western Marxism ... Surveying this history, we will examine the debates on Marxian ecology that have emerged within the left ..."
- Kohei Saito: Marx’s Ecological Notebooks (Vol.67, No.9, February 2016)
"Looking at the notebooks after 1868, one can immediately recognize the rapid expansion of Marx’s ecological interests."
- John Bellamy Foster: Paul Burkett’s Marx and Nature fifteen years after (Vol.66, No.7, December 2014)
"Foreword to the second edition of Paul Burkett, Marx and Nature: A Red and Green Perspective (Haymarket, 2014, 309 p.)
- Kohei Saito: The emergence of Marx’s critique of modern agriculture: Ecological insights from his Excerpt Notebooks (Vol.66, No.5, October 2014)
"Examining Marx’s excerpts cautiously, one realizes that he first attained a truly critical and ecological comprehension of modern agriculture, that goes beyond the paradigm of the Ricardian theory of differential rent, in the middle of the 1860s."
- John Bellamy Foster: The ecology of Marxian political economy (Vol.63, No.4, September 2011)
"In the following analysis, therefore, I will discuss not only the ecological critique provided by Marx (and Engels), but also that of later Marxian and radical political economists ..."
- Paul Burkett: Marx’s vision of sustainable human development (Vol.57, No.5, October 2005)
"The suggestion that Marx’s communism can inform the struggle for more healthy, sustainable, and liberating forms of human development may seem paradoxical in light of various ecological criticisms of Marx that have become so fashionable over the last several decades."
- John Bellamy Foster: Marx’s ecological value analysis (Vol.52, No.4, September 2000). Review of Paul Burkett, Marx and Nature: A Red and Green Perspective (MacMillan, 1999)
- John Bellamy Foster: Marx and the environment (Vol.47, No.3, July-August, 1995). Only abstract online.
"It has become fashionable in recent years, in the words of one critic, to identify the growth of ecological consciousness with ’the current postmodernist interrogation of the metanarrative of the Enlightenment’ ... Nowhere is this fashion more evident than in certain criticisms directed at Marx and Engels."

MR Zine
- John Bellamy Foster: Marx and the global environmental rift (28/11/07)
"Ecology is often seen as a recent invention. But the idea that capitalism degrades the environment in a way that disproportionately affects the poor and the colonized was already expressed in the nineteenth century in the work of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels."
Capital and Nature: An interview with Paul Burkett (24/04/07)
"Contrary to many interpretations, Marx studied and included an ecological analysis in Capital."

Organization & Environment
- Paul Burkett and John Bellamy Foster: Classical Marxism and the second law of thermodynamics: Marx/Engels, the heat death of the universe theory, and the origins of ecological economics (pdf) (Vol.21, No.1, March 2008, p.1-35; online at
"This opens the way to the recognition that Marx’s political economy was unique in the 19th century in incorporating thermodynamics into the core of its analysis, thus providing the foundations for an ecological economics."
- Brett Clark and John Bellamy Foster: The environmental conditions of the working class (pdf) (Vol.19, No.3, September 2006, p.375-88; online at An introduction to selections from Frederick Engels’s The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844.
"For Engels [the book] was to be the first of a series of connected analyses of ecology that stretched through more than half a century ... making him one of the most important but underappreciated contributors to the development of environmental thought."
- John Bellamy Foster: The crisis of the earth: Marx’s theory of ecological sustainability as a nature-imposed necessity forhHuman production (pdf) (Vol.10, No.3, September 1997, p.280-297; online at
"The literature on Marx and the environment is voluminous, reflecting the wide range of disagreement, the theoretical complexity of the issues involved, and - above all - the high stakes associated with the the ecological evaluation of Marx’s thought."

Socialist Register
- John Bellamy Foster: The Communist Manifesto and the environment (Merlin Press/Monthly Review Press, 1998, p.169-189)
"To what extent is the Manifesto - arguably the most influential political pamphlet of all time - compatible with ecological values, as we understand them today? Moreover, how is the Manifesto to be situated within the rest of Marx and Engels’ thought in this respect?"

Socialist Worker
Marx and ecology (Issue 2080, 8 December 2007)
"Karl Marx’s analysis of the environment under capitalism shows how saving the planet is inextricably linked to transforming our society, writes John Bellamy Foster."

Book review by Tom Smith (Issue 23, Fall 2000):
James [i.e. John] Bellamy Foster: Marx’s Ecology (New York, Monthly Review Press, 2000)
Paul Burkett: Marx and Nature (New York, St. Martin’s Press, 1999)
"Many ’populist’ writers still condemn Marx for his alleged ’Promethean’ faith in technological progress. Many ’Marxists’ agree - and accept the charge proudly. For them, workers’ control will merely ensure that even heretofore-dangerous technologies-nuclear power, for example - will become safe. Even such ’social ecologists’ as Murray Bookchin accept this view of Marx’s concept of ecology and progress. Foster’s and Burkett’s books thoroughly debunk this belief."

Theory and Society
- Paul Burkett and John Bellamy Foster: Metabolism, energy, and entropy in Marx’s critique of political economy: Beyond the Podolinsky myth (pdf) (Vol.35, No.1, February 2006, p.109-56; online at
"Building on an earlier analysis of Marx’s and Engels’s response to Podolinsky, this article shows that they relied on an open-system, metabolic-energetic model that adhered to all of the main strictures of ecological economics - but one that also (unlike ecological economics) rooted the violation of solar and other environmental-sustainability conditions in the class relations of capitalist society."

Weekly Worker
Marx and ecology, Part 1 (Issue 349, August 31, 2000) + Part 2 (Issue 350, September 7, 2000) + Part 3 (Issue 352, September 21, 2000)
"Michael Malkin examines the relationship between humanity and nature in the thought of Karl Marx."

World Review of Political Economy
- Brett Clark and John Bellamy Foster: Marx’s ecology in the 21st century (pdf) (Vol.1, No.1, March 2010, p.142-56; online at
"Thus Marx’s ecology in the eyes of some green left and even ecosocialist thinkers is largely irrelevant to 21st-century conditions ... Our argument is radically different. We contend that Marx’s materialist and metabolic approach ... provide an invaluable methodological foundation to critique contemporary environmental degradation and to envision social and ecological transformation."

Se også:

- Fred Magdoff: Problemet er kapitalisme (Kritisk Debat, 16. februar 2015)
"Dette oplæg blev holdt den 20. september 2014 på ’New York City Climate Convergence’ - et stort alternativt topmøde for klimaaktivister arrangeret af bevægelsen ’System Change Not Climate Change’ og ’Global Climate Convergence’.
Kriget om energiframtiden (Röda Rummet, nr.2-3, 2013)
"John Bellamy Foster kommenterar och analyserar kampen kring vår tids stora energidilemma." Også online på (pdf).
Socialismens økologi (, 22. januar 2011)
"Det belgiske ugemagasin Solidaire, bragte i april sidste år dette interview, hvor den amerikanske marxist John Bellamy Foster giver nye argumenter i kampen for en socialistisk økologi."
En økologisk-social revolution (Solidaritet, nr.4, december 2009, s.14-22; online på Lars Henrik Carskov Blog)
"Nutidens økologiske krise udspringer af kapitalens voldsomme ekspansion ind på alle livets områder. En økologisk omstilling indebærer derfor også et opgør med det kapitalistiske system af global irrationalitet. Det skriver John Bellamy Foster i dette uddrag fra sin seneste bog The Ecological Revolution: Making Peace with the Planet (2009, kap. 13, s.253-264)."
- Simon Butler: Økologi og socialisme – to uadskillelige revolutioner (Socialistisk Information, 02.09.09). Anmeldelse af John Bellamy Foster: The Ecological Revolution: Making Peace with the Planet (2009).
- John Bellamy Foster: Økologi og overgangen fra kapitalisme til socialisme (Det Ny Clarté, nr.10, maj 2009). Artiklen er p.t. ikke online.
"Socialismen har siden sin oprindelse været optaget af økologisk bæredygtighed. Den er insisterende i sin kritiske analyse af markedets vækstfilosofi og dets fremmedgørelse fra naturen."
- John Bellamy Foster: Peak oil - om topp i oljeproduksjonen og energiimperialisme (Rødt! nr.2, 2009)
"Framveksten av open militarisme og imperialisme ved starten på det tjueførste hundreåret har stort sett si årsak i forsøk frå dei dominerande kreftene i verdsøkonomien på å vinne kontroll over dei minkande oljeforsyningane i verda."
- John Bellamy Foster: Ødeleggelsens økologi (Rødt! nr.2a, 2007)
"Jeg vil starte denne analysen av det jeg kaller ’ødeleggelsens økologi’ med å referere til Gillo Pontecorvos film Brenn / Queimada fra 1969."


Gaia: tidsskrift for international solidaritet (nr.81, forår 2017, 31 s.). Kvartalstidsskrift online med artikler om Trump og nyliberalismen, Etiopien, Cuba, Filippinerne, Israel og Columbia.

Against the Current (Issue 188, May-June 2017). Amerikansk socialistisk tidsskrift online med artikler bl.a. om Trumps politik, Latinamerikas højredrejning, Den Russiske Revolution og arbejderdemokrati + mange boganmeldelser.

Kritisk Debat (17. april 2017). Online med 16 artikler, bl.a. om Socialdemokraterne og højrepopulismen, Latinamerika, Frankrig, Indien, samt en længere artikel af Göran Therborn om ulighedens dynamik (fra New Left Review).

International Socialism (Issue 154, Spring 2017, 223 p.). Britisk kvartalstidsskrift online med artikler bl.a om Donald Trump og den neoliberalistiske verdensorden, antisemitisme og højrefløjen, den russiske revolution og Lenins April-teser, klasseanalyse, Frantz Fanon, Engels og menneskets forhistorie + boganmeldelser.

Se også:
Nyeste links på Modkraft Biblioteket
Nogle af de nyeste links tilføjet på Tidslinjen og linksamlinger på Modkraft Bibliotekets sider.

Aktuelle links


Links med en marxistisk økonomisk blogger, nyere marxistiske bøger og socialistiske konferenceoplæg.

Michael Robert - blogging from a Marxist economist
"First-rate Marxist political economy, deployed for both analysis and polemic, lucidly explained and supported by illuminating graphs and tables."

Marxist books on the global financial crisis and capitalism
Linkbox med et udvalg af nyere marxistiske bøger på engelsk. Med anmeldelser, debat og interviews - og nye bøger (2016) af Michael Roberts og Anwar Shaikh.

Radical economic theories of the current economic crisis (pdf, 23 sider)
Union of Radical Political Economics, sommerkonference 2012.
Med bidrag fra Steve Keen, Andrew Kliman, David M. Kotz, Arthur MacEwan, Fred Moseley, Thomas I. Palley, Jack Rasmus, Michael Roberts, Anwar Shaikh og Richard Wolff.


Af Nathan Schneider

Ingen ledere, ingen vold

28. februar | Hvad indebærer begrebet om en mangfoldighed af taktikker for Occupy Wall Street? Således spørger Nathan Schneider, der selv er med i bevægelsen, i den nye bog »Vi er de 99%«.

25. februar
Folkedrabets moralske historie

23. februar
Assad-regimets krig mod egen befolkning

20. februar
»Tom« har forladt os


Af Camilla Tved

10 gode grunde til at se ”10 timer til Paradis”

19. februar | Den meget omtalte og roste spillefilmsdebut fra Mads Mathiesen gør det nemt for publikum. Læs her hvorfor en af QueerKrafts anmeldere blev blød i knæene og nu ønsker sig en (...)

7 kommentarer

17. februar
Queerfeministisk antiracistisk kritik

11. februar
Anders Behring Breivik og kampen om forklaringen

7. februar
Arabiske kvinders kamp i skyggen af islamisternes valgsejre


Af Ulrikke Moustgaard, Kvinfo

»Kønskvoter styrker konkurrenceevnen«

27. februar | Direktøren i det norske Finansnæringens Arbeidsgiverforening mener, at kønskvoter er det bedste, der er sket for Norges globale konkurrencedygtighed.

24. februar
Faglig énmandshær er død

22. februar
Støt de græske stålarbejdere

19. februar
Lønarbejderne skal tilbage til centrum-venstre!


Af Sune Hundebøll

Løb i varmen

27. februar | Mens vi udfordres af februarkulden, har løbere sat hinanden i stævne nær Tindouf i Algeriet. Deres udfordring er varmen og 42,195 kilometers løb gennem ørkenen.

24. februar
Kontrafon: fra Nørrebros undergrund til P3

22. februar
KODA freder YouTube

22. februar
Piratradio på standby af frygt for myndighederne


Af Rina Ronja Kari

Så går det løs igen

29. februar | 10:40

Af Elizabeth Japsen

Avantgardisten Holberg anno 1721 og 8 marts

28. februar | 09:23

1 kommentarer

Af Karen Helveg Petersen

»De faktiske forhold i jernindustrien…«

27. februar | 17:01

4 kommentarer

Af Søren Søndergaard


27. februar | 08:52

2 kommentarer

Af Henrik Chulu

Digitalt forår

27. februar | 01:22

4 kommentarer

Af Lise Jonassen

Vi er ikke svage - vi har bare ikke arbejde

26.februar | 11:57

2 kommentarer

Stop ACTA nu Demonstration 25-02-2012

Billeder fra demoen mod ACTA lørdag d. 25/2-2012

Lavet af Filip S -


Seneste kommentarer

Henrik Chulu | Jens Voldby Crumlin | kl. 09:13
Kodeordene for et nyt samfundssystem er en ny økonomi som er frigjort fra (...)

Kontradoxa | amalie skram | kl. 00:16
@Grølheim Hvem og hvad giver dig din absurde tro på, at Assad-regimet (...)

Saila Naomi Stausholm | Saila Naomi Stausholm | kl. 23:41
Hej alle, mange tak for jeres kommentarer. Mht debatten om mig/SF’ere på (...)

Saila Naomi Stausholm | Saila Naomi Stausholm | kl. 23:31
Hej alle, lige lidt respons herfra - igen tak for jeres kommentarer. Mht (...)

Kontradoxa | Grølheim | kl. 21:30
@amalie; Jeg synes denne råben "konspirationsteoretikere" bliver mere og (...)

QueerKraft | Karl | kl. 15:01
Enig med Karen. Og så tror jeg at pointen med klummen både er at ærgre sig (...)

Kontradoxa | peter | kl. 14:25
@e lykke Fordi nogle oprørere i Libyen opfører sig som racistiske svin (...)

Kontradoxa | peter | kl. 14:23
@Amalie Skram Helt enig. Det er vildt grotesk, at der findes folk der (...)

Karen Helveg Petersen | Johannes | kl. 14:08
Man bliver jo næsten nødt til at spørge, af ren nysgerrighed (eller (...)

Jakob Lindblom | Bente | kl. 13:44
Nej jeg vil ikke slappe af Jacob. For jo du siger en hel masse.. Du eller I (...)

Dagen i dag

Se flere på

Dem, der ønsker at opgive frihed for sikkerhed, vil ikke få, og fortjener ejheller, nogen af delene.

Thomas Jefferson . USAs tredje præsident (1743-1826)

Flere citater