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Socialists on Religion: On Christianity

Marxist critics on religion and historical analysis of the main religions

General on Religion
The Classics
On Islam
On Christianity
On Judaism / Jews
- Appendix: On the Bolsheviks and Religion

Socialister om religion (Danish references)

- Neil Faulkner: Jesus Christ: revolutionary (28 October 2011)
"In this edited extract from his book The Jewish Revolt Neil Faulkner argues that Jesus was a revolutionary."

- Eric Walberg: The Bible and Middle East history: colonizing a metaphor (December 3, 2007)
"What do modern archaeology and other sciences have to say about the Bible? Does it help us resolve the question of the validity of Jesus as a legitimate messiah, one who would end Judaism and found a truly universal religion for all mankind? Does it allow Judaism a new lease on life, providing proof of the existence of a Greater Israel from the Nile to the Euphrates, with a spectacular and ancient history? And are we fated to die in a fiery apocalypse as predicted in Revelations?"

Europe Solidaire Sans Frontieres
- Michael Löwy: Liberation Theology Marxism (2000)
"The discovery of Marxism by progressive Christians and liberation theology was not a purely intellectual or academic process. Its starting point was an unavoidable social fact, a massive, brutal reality in Latin America: poverty."

Foundations of Christianity
By Karl Kautsky (1908; Russell and Russell, 1953)
"Christianity and Bible criticism are themes I have long been concerned with ... I do not of course claim to have exhausted the subject. It is too gigantic for that. I shall be content if I have succeeded in contributing to the understanding of those aspects of Christianity that seem to me to be the decisive ones from the point of view of the materialistic conception of history."
See also:
- Karl Kautsky: The death of Jesus (Workers Liberty, Issue 59, December 1999)
"The hodgepodge of moral maxims and miraculous deeds which is offered by the Gospels as a report on these activities is so full of impossible and obviously fabricated material, and has so little that can be borne out by other evidence, that it cannot be used as a source."
- Ernest Belfort Bax: Kautsky’s Origins of Christianity (The Social Democrat, Vol. XIII, No. 10, October 15, 1909)
"Apart from the vigour and interest of its literary presentation and marshalling of historical facts, Kautsky’s book is remarkable ... for its thorough-going and consistent attempt to reduce Christian origins and the phenomena connected with them to economic causes."
- Sean Matgamna: 2000 years of anti-Jewish lies (Workers Liberty, Issue 59, December 1999)
"As the classic Marxist writer Karl Kautsky shows in the excerpt from his book ’The Foundations of Christianity’ on the following pages, the New Testament writers set out, deliberately and systematically, to demonise the Jews and foment hatred against them as the murderers of Christ. They did it by inventing fantastic and self-contradictory tales about the death of Christ."
- Alan Woods: On Kautsky’s Foundations of Christianity, Part One (In Defence of Marxism, 23 September 2011) + Part 2 (14 October) + Part 3 (9 December) + Part 4 (21 December)
" ... the republication of The Foundations of Christianity in German is a most timely decision. This work deserves a far wider audience than it has had ... Kautsky’s book is a masterpiece of the method of historical materialism."

In Defence of Marxism
- John Pickard: Foundations of Christianity (23 December 2009)
"Pickard looks at the reality of how this religion came about - from the standpoint of class forces and the material developments of society, rather than by the pious fictions fed from church pulpits."

International Socialism
- Paul Blackledge: Not just opium (Issue 113, Winter 2007, p. 191-194). A review of Scott Mann, Heart of a Heartless World: Religion as Ideology (1999)
"Mann’s book includes fascinating discussions of how the image of god changed through history; from the worship of the goddess in pre-class societies in Europe to the overthrow of this religion and its replacement by male gods following the emergence of class societies after the last ice age. He also has interesting things to say about the rise of Catholicism and Protestantism, and even an entertaining, if speculative, discussion of Jesus."
- Neil Davidson: Enlightenment and anti-capitalism (Issue 110, Spring 2006, p. 85-112)
"The Enlightenment was an intellectual and social movement which, like the Renaissance and the Reformation before it, characterised a specific historical period, in this case beginning in the middle decades of the 17th century and ending over 200 years ago, at the end of the 18th century. Yet it remains at the heart of current concerns in a way that, for example, Reformation debates over predestination do not. The Enlightenment remains a contemporary issue and not merely a historical one."
- Neil Faulkner: Crusade and jihad in the medieval Middle East (Issue 109, Winter 2006, p. 127-142)
"Crusades was the word George Bush used as he launched his first attack on Afghanistan ... Neil Faulkner explains what lay behind the Crusades - and behind their defeat at the hands of jihad."
- John Rose: Jesus: history’s most famous missing person (Issue 85, Winter 1999, p. 73-85)
"The Millennium seems a good movement to examine the event that defines the Christian calendar, the birth of Jesus. John Rose examines the historical evidence for the existence of Jesus in the context of social conflict in the Roman Empire."

Notebooks for Study and Research
- Michael Löwy: Marxism and Liberation Theology (No.10, 1988, 40 p.)
"The emergence of revolutionary Christianity and liberation theology in Latin America opened a new chapter and posed exciting new questions. Michael Löwy argues that these developments demand a renewal of the Marxist analysis of religion."

Islamic Reformation? By Sami Zubaida (5 January 2016)
"We keep hearing calls for an ‘Islamic Reformation’, but the Protestant Reformation was not a liberal enterprise: it was the original ‘fundamentalism’, whence the label now applied to Islam."

The Origins of Christianity
By Archibald Robertson (International Publishers, 1954/1962)
How man made God - Who were the Jews? - The kingdom of the son of man - The Jews in the Roman Empire - The legend of Jesus Christ - Paul - The break with Judaism - The birth of the Catholic Church - Appendix on The Dead Sea Scrolls.

Louis Proyect
Liberation theology (January 9, 2007)
"Is Marxism hostile to liberation theology? ... A careful reading of the socialist press will reveal very little prejudice against liberation theology, except predictably from the lunatic fringe."

Socialist Worker
The Protestant Revolution: the rival religions of princes and peasants (Issue 2068, 15 September 2007)
"Alberto Toscano casts a critical eye over a new BBC history series on the Protestant movement."
- Phil Gasper: Jesus the revolutionary? (December 14, 2011)
"How close are the views of right-wing politicians who proclaim their Christian beliefs to the historical Jesus who opposed kings and oppressors?"

Spiked Review of Books
- Michael Fitzpatrick: Was Jesus a revolutionary? (No. 8, December 2007)
"In our age of vulgar atheistic polemics, Catholic-turned-Marxist Terry Eagleton brings a rare combination of intellectual depth and seriousness to his study of the gospels. But humanity will not find salvation in the ‘Good Book’.

Weekly Worker
- Jack Conrad: Jesus - armed and dangerous (Issue 1136, 22 December 2016)
"Forget the virgin birth, the stable, the wondrous star, the shepherds and the wise men, the massacre of the innocents and the angel of the lord telling Joseph and Mary to flee to Egypt. All pure invention. Jesus was an apocalyptic revolutionary."
After the death of Jesus (Issue 1052, 2 April 2015)
"According to western Christian mythology, Jesus died on Good Friday and came back to life three days later on what we now call Easter Monday. But, argues Jack Conrad, Jesus and his first followers were not Christians, but Jewish revolutionaries. It was Paul who invented Christianity."
Neither meek nor mild (Issue1039, 18 December 2014)
"Jesus was a rabbi, a communist and a brave revolutionary, argues Jack Conrad."
- Jack Conrad: Religion, class struggles, and revolution in ancient Judea, Supplement I (Issue 827, July 22, 2010) +
Supplement II: Peasant socialism and the persistence of polytheism (Issue 828, July 29, 2010) +
Supplement III: Royalist nationalism, opposition prophets, and the impact of exile and return (Issue 829, August 5, 2010)
"The aim of this three-part study is to locate the main internal and external factors involved in bringing about the Jerusalem temple cult described in the New Testament, in which, of course, Jesus and his party participated and sought to purify through their audacious actions."
Uses and abuses of Jesus (Issue 702, December 20, 2007)
"Even in the 21st century Jesus is still a much prized figure. In this the second chapter of his new book [Fantastic reality: Marxism and the politics of religion (London, JC Publications, 2007, 528 p.] Jack Conrad shows how Jesus has been used and abused by almost every political persuasion."
Jesus : a revolutionary and a communist (Issue 525, April 22, 2004)
"Jack Conrad presents a communist analysis of Jesus."
- Jack Conrad: Christianity and the decline of Rome, Supplement (Issue 365, December 21, 2000)
"In writing this third supplement my aim is to show how, having emerged as a split from the Jesus movement, Pauline Christianity rapidly proliferated throughout the Roman empire to the stage where it counted as a physical power, almost a state within a state, and therefore a potential theocratic rival to the emperor and his authority. Religious toleration was cast aside."
- Jack Conrad: James and the genesis of Christianity (Issue 318, January 13, 2000)
"In writing this supplement my intention is to find the real Jesus and show how Christianity emerged as a split from the Jesus movement.
See also:
- Video: Jesus: son of God or revolutionary resistance fighter? (December 22, 2008, 189 min.)
"Jack Conrad, author of Fantastic Reality: Marxism and the Politics of Religion, asks who the real Jesus was. This video was recorded at a recent Communist Students public meeting."
- Jack Conrad: Religion, class struggles, and revolution in ancient Judea, Supplement I (Issue 827, July 22, 2010) + Peasant socialism and the persistence of polytheism, Supplement II (Issue 828, July 29, 2010) + Royalist nationalism, opposition prophets, and the impact of exile and return, Supplement III (Issue 829, August 5, 2010)
"The aim of this three-part study is to locate the main internal and external factors involved in bringing about the Jerusalem temple cult described in the New Testament, in which, of course, Jesus and his party participated and sought to purify through their audacious actions."

Workers Liberty
- Featured Topics: Religion & Politics: Christianity

Christianity (
Criticism of Christianity (
Skeptic’s Annotated Bible
Bibelen på Internettet (Bibelselskabet)


Gaia: tidsskrift for international solidaritet (nr.81, forår 2017, 31 s.). Kvartalstidsskrift online med artikler om Trump og nyliberalismen, Etiopien, Cuba, Filippinerne, Israel og Columbia.

Against the Current (Issue 188, May-June 2017). Amerikansk socialistisk tidsskrift online med artikler bl.a. om Trumps politik, Latinamerikas højredrejning, Den Russiske Revolution og arbejderdemokrati + mange boganmeldelser.

Kritisk Debat (17. april 2017). Online med 16 artikler, bl.a. om Socialdemokraterne og højrepopulismen, Latinamerika, Frankrig, Indien, samt en længere artikel af Göran Therborn om ulighedens dynamik (fra New Left Review).

International Socialism (Issue 154, Spring 2017, 223 p.). Britisk kvartalstidsskrift online med artikler bl.a om Donald Trump og den neoliberalistiske verdensorden, antisemitisme og højrefløjen, den russiske revolution og Lenins April-teser, klasseanalyse, Frantz Fanon, Engels og menneskets forhistorie + boganmeldelser.

Se også:
Nyeste links på Modkraft Biblioteket
Nogle af de nyeste links tilføjet på Tidslinjen og linksamlinger på Modkraft Bibliotekets sider.

Aktuelle links


Links med en marxistisk økonomisk blogger, nyere marxistiske bøger og socialistiske konferenceoplæg.

Michael Robert - blogging from a Marxist economist
"First-rate Marxist political economy, deployed for both analysis and polemic, lucidly explained and supported by illuminating graphs and tables."

Marxist books on the global financial crisis and capitalism
Linkbox med et udvalg af nyere marxistiske bøger på engelsk. Med anmeldelser, debat og interviews - og nye bøger (2016) af Michael Roberts og Anwar Shaikh.

Radical economic theories of the current economic crisis (pdf, 23 sider)
Union of Radical Political Economics, sommerkonference 2012.
Med bidrag fra Steve Keen, Andrew Kliman, David M. Kotz, Arthur MacEwan, Fred Moseley, Thomas I. Palley, Jack Rasmus, Michael Roberts, Anwar Shaikh og Richard Wolff.


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Så går det løs igen

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Af Lise Jonassen

Vi er ikke svage - vi har bare ikke arbejde

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Stop ACTA nu Demonstration 25-02-2012

Billeder fra demoen mod ACTA lørdag d. 25/2-2012

Lavet af Filip S -


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@Grølheim Hvem og hvad giver dig din absurde tro på, at Assad-regimet (...)

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Den ultimative fattigdom findes i Danmark. For i Danmark findes mennesker, som er så nærige, at de ikke vil anerkende over for de fattige, at de er fattige.

Morten Hartz Kaplers. (*1971) Dansk filminstruktør. I kronik i Politiken 6. december 2011.

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