Linkbox om den Amerikanske Borgerkrig (1861-1865), slaveriets afskaffelse i USA og præsident Abraham Lincoln (og Karl Marx!).
(Modkraft.dk/Tidsskriftcentret, april 2011)
De første væbnede sammenstød i Den Amerikanske Borgerkrig starter 12. april 1861, da Konføderationsstyrker (Sydstaterne) angriber Fort Sumter i South Carolina. Sidste tropper fra Konføderationen overgiver sig til Unionen 23. juni 1865.
Den Amerikanske Borgerkrig (Denstoredanske.dk)
Amerikanske borgerkrig (Wikipedia.dk)
American Civil War (Wikipedia.org)
American Civil War (Spartacus Educational)
The American Civil War. Chapter 57, - i: Neil Faulkner: A Marxist History of the World (Counterfire, 8 January 2012)
"One hundred and fifty years ago North America saw the start of a revolutionary war fought between rival systems and opposing political ideologies."
American Jacobins. By Seth Ackerman (Jacobin, No.7-8, 2012)
"Why has the American left neglected this revolutionay inheritance?
See also debate:
- The war of Northern aggression. By James Oakes (Jacobin, No.7-8, 2012). "A leading Civil War historian challenges the new orthodoxy about how slavery ended in America. "
- A war of emancipation. By James Oakes (Jacobin, 9.25.12). "The Republicans were emancipators - from start to finish."
- The Civil War reconsidered. By Charlie Post (Jacobin, 9.25.12). "Jacobin’s symposium on ’American Jacobins’ is a provocative reminder that the US Civil War and Reconstruction was a radical revolution."
Spielberg’s ’Lincoln’, Karl Marx, and the Second American Revolution. By Kevin Anderson (The International Marxist-Humanist, December 19, 2012)
"The film ’Lincoln’ shows the radicalization that had taken place in Civil War America by January 1865, with the Lincoln administration allying itself with the Radical Republicans to end slavery. At the same time, this Hollywood epic ignores both the economic/class dimensions and the warm exchange of letters between Marx’s First International and the Lincoln administration ..."
An unfinished revolution: Karl Marx and Abraham Lincoln. By Katherine Connelly (Counterfire, 5 April 2012). Review of Robin Blackburn, An Unfinished Revolution: Karl Marx and Abraham Lincoln (Verso, 2011)
"Robin Blackburn offers an exciting new perspective on Marx’s interpretation of the American Civil War that puts the question of slavery back at its heart."
Symposium on Karl Marx and the US Civil War (Historical Materialism, Vol.19, No.4, 2011, p.33-205)
"On the occasion of the 150th anniversary of the beginning of the American Civil War, Historical Materialism has brought together some of the most significant Marxist scholars working in this area to debate the issues. This text introduces some of the questions raised by the Civil War and Southern slavery for Marxists." With articles by Steve Edwards, John Ashworth, Charles Post, Neil Davidson Robin Blackburn, August H. Nimtz and Eric Foner. Only abstracts online.
Karl Marx and the American Civil War. By Donny Schraffenberger (International Socialist Review, Issue 80, November-December 2011)
"A look at Marx and Engels’ writing during the Civil War reveals some remarkably powerful insights into that conflict."
Slavery and the origins of the Civil War. By James Illingworth (International Socialist Review, Issue 78, July-August 2011)
"The Civil War remains one of the most misunderstood episodes in American history. Unfortunately, this is just as true on the left as it is on the right."
The American Civil War: war against slavery (Socialist Worker, Issue 2248, 23 April 2011)
"150 years after the American Civil War began, Matthew Cookson looks back at the significance of the conflict - and examines what really lay behind it."
The Civil War: an eerie silence: why the muted anniversary? By Robin Blackburn (CounterPunch, April 18, 2011)
"The news and entertainment media love anniversaries. So it is strange that the 150th anniversary of the start of the Civil War has been so low key. The BBC has a regular item each evening explaining the Secession crisis, in contrast to the shrugs of the US channels."
One hundred and fifty years since the US Civil War. By Tom Eley and David North (World Socialist Web Site, 13 April 2011)
"This week marks the 150th anniversary of the Confederate attack on federal soldiers at Fort Sumter, in South Carolina, which began the Civil War between the Union and the Confederacy - an epochal event in American and world history."
The struggle that set the stage for a Civil War (SocialistWorker.org, April 12, 2011)
"The opening shots of the American Civil War were fired 150 years ago today - but as Alan Maass explains, the abolitionists’ war on slavery began decades before."
The war that became a revolution (Socialist Review, April 2011)
"The US Civil War began 150 years ago in April 1861. It ended with the abolition of slavery in the Southern states. Mark L Thomas spoke to historian James McPherson about this turning point in US history."
Slavery and the Civil War (SocialistWorker.org, February 24, 2011)
"A century and a half after the opening shots of the Civil War, James Illingworth dispels the myths about the Southern slaveocracy and the war that liberated slaves."
Classics of Marxism: W.E.B. Du Bois, Black Reconstruction in America 1860–1880. Review by Keeanga-Yamahtta Taylor (International Socialist Review, Issue 57, January–February 2008)
"The Civil War resulted in a pitched battle to determine the future course of American politics and society, a battle that continues to reverberate today. W.E.B. Du Bois’s book is an epic retelling of that history. Written in 1935, Black Reconstruction literally rewrote the official history of the Civil War and Reconstruction eras."
The Civil War as 2nd American Revolution, Part I-V (Wig-Wags: Journal of a graduate student in military history and the American Civil War. Blog by Rene Tyree, 2007)
Architects of their own liberation. By Michael Bradley (Socialist Review, October 2007)
"Much has been written about the American Civil War, but less is known about the decisive role of black soldiers in the conflict. Michael Bradley unearths the role of free blacks and escaped slaves whose heroism helped secure victory against the Confederate South and ended slavery."
The Second American Revolution (Part 2 in Alan Woods: Marxism and the United States, Wellred, 2005)
"Like every other serious conflict, at bottom the American Civil War was a class struggle. The Northern manufacturers necessarily had to come into conflict with the Southern landowning classes. The conflict of interest between the two lasted for sixty years and finally ended in civil war."
An uncivil war. By Gareth Jenkins (Socialist Review, June 2004). Review of August Nimtz, Marx, Tocqueville, and Race in America (Lexington Books, 2003)
"Hence, on the one hand, the First International, under Marx’s inspiration, marshalled support for Lincoln ... On the other hand, American communists, mostly German veterans of the 1848 revolutions, organised to win the ideological battle among workers to support black liberation ... this is a splendid book which every activist should read and learn from."
How the US Civil War became ’a remorseless revolutionary struggle’. By David Walsh (World Socialist Web Site, 28 February 2003)
"A recent conversation with historian James McPherson was prompted by two events: the appearance of Martin Scorsese’s Gangs of New York, which purports to deal with an episode of the Civil War, and the publication of McPherson’s most recent work, Crossroads of Freedom: Antietam, which studies one of the turning points in that same conflict."
The Civil War, impeachment then and now and Lincoln’s legacy, Part 1. By David Walsh (World Socialist Web Site, 19 May 1999) + Part 2 (20 May) + Part 3 (21 May)
"David Walsh recently spoke to James McPherson, the distinguished historian of the Civil War era. Professor McPherson’s works include Abraham Lincoln and the Second American Revolution; Battle Cry of Freedom; For Cause and Comrades: Why Men Fought in the Civil War and The Struggle for Equality."
Clash of two systems. By Chris Harman (Socialist Worker Review, No.131, May 1990, p.25-26; online at Marxists’ Internet Archive). Review of James M. McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom (Penguin, 1990)
"... there are occasions in which the forces of reaction cannot hold the line indefinitely, however skilled they are and however unskilled their opponents. The battle between the exploiters of free labour and of slavery in America was one such occasion."
Marx and Engels on the Civil War. By George Novack (New International, Vol.IV, No.2, February 1938)
"Engels called the American Civil War ’the first grand war of contemporaneous history’. Marx later hailed it as ’the greatest event of the age’ ... The Second American Revolution stands out as the decisive turning point of Nineteenth century history."
Marx and Engels: Writings on the U.S. Civil War (Marxists Internet Archive)
Twenty-nine articles from Die Presse and New-York Daily Tribune, 1861-1862.
(Ovenstående fotos er fra borgerkrigen, kilde: American Memory from the Library of Congress)
USAs præsident Abraham Lincoln erklærer 22. september 1862 alle slaver i sydstaterne fri fra den 1. januar 1863, og forvandler den (nord)amerikanske borgerkrig fra en kamp for unionen til en kamp om slaveriet.
Emancipationserklæringen (Wikipedia.dk). Med link til lang engelsk artikel.
Video: The Emancipation Proclamation (History.com, 2:14 min.). "... the Emancipation Proclamation had both moral and strategic implications for the ongoing Civil War."
150 years since the Emancipation Proclamation. By Tom Mackaman (World Socialist Web Site, 3 January 2013)
"The Emancipation Proclamation turned the Civil War into a social revolution. It transformed the struggle, waged by the North until then as a war to preserve the Union as it had existed in 1860, into a war for the destruction of slavery and the social and political order that rested upon it."
Interview with historian James McPherson: 150 years since the Emancipation Proclamation. By Tom Mackaman (World Socialist Web Site, 29 October 2012)
Igniting a war to free the slaves (SocialistWorker.org, October 10, 2012) "The unveiling of the Emancipation Proclamation 150 years ago this fall marked a turning point in the history of the American Civil War, writes James Illingworth."
Proclaiming the end of slavery (Socialist Review, September 2012)
"On the 150th anniversary Camilla Royle looks back at this crucial turning point in the American Civil War."
150 years since the Battle of Antietam: Prelude to the Emancipation Proclamation. By Tom Mackaman (World Socialist Web Site, 17 September 2012)
"One hundred fifty years ago ... the armies of the Union and the Confederacy met by Antietam Creek, near Sharpsburg, Maryland. The battle that ensued remains the bloodiest single day for US troops in American military history ... Yet the significance of the Battle of Antietam goes far beyond its casualty toll."
How slavery was ended: Civil war and Reconstruction. By Keeanga-Yamahtta Taylor (Socialist Worker, US, Issue 662, February 15, 2008)
"The American Civil War from 1861 to 1865 and the Reconstruction era that followed completed the revolution, smashing the 254-year-old system of slavery in the American South and transforming Southern society."
The enduring significance of the Emancipation Proclamation. By Shannon Jones (World Socialist Web Site, 2 June 2004)
Review article of Allen C. Guelzo, Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation: The End of Slavery in America (Simon & Schuster, 2004): "This work, the first major treatment on the Emancipation Proclamation in 40 years, is well written and highly informative."
Some thoughts on The Emancipation Proclamation. By George Novack (International Socialist Review, Vol.24, No.2, Spring 1963; online at Marxists Internet Archive)
"Despite the restraint in this restatement of his guiding line, Lincoln had reached the point where he could no longer withstand the fierce pressure of emancipationist sentiment."
Senere præsident nr. 16 i USA Abraham Lincoln fødes 12. februar 1809 i Sinking Spring Farm, Hardin County, Kentucky (myrdet 15. april 1865 i Ford’s Theater, Washington, D.C.)
Abraham Lincoln (Den Store Danske)
Abraham Lincoln (Wikipedia.dk)
Abraham Lincoln (Wikipedia.org)
Lincoln, slavery, and the American Civil War. By Neil Faulkner (Counterfire, 30 January 2013)
"The American Revolution and the American Civil War represent the two phases of the bourgeois revolution that created modern America. Racism, sexism, and class exploitation remained – and still remain – central features of American life. But that should not detract from our appreciation of how history was driven forwards by determined revolutionary leadership in ‘the fiery trial’ of 1861-1865."
Understanding Lincoln: An interview with historian Allen Guelzo (World Socialist Web Site, 3 April 2013)
"Allen Guelzo is the author of numerous books, including Abraham Lincoln: Redeemer President and Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation: The End of Slavery in America and Fateful Lightning: A New History of the Civil War and Reconstruction.">
Reading Karl Marx with Abraham Lincoln: Utopian socialists, German communists, and other republicans. By John Nichols (International Socialist Review, Issue 79, September-October 2011)
"In a chapter from his new book The "S" Word, John Nichols discusses the relationship between Karl Marx, German exiles in the United States, and Abraham Lincoln."
150 years ago: The election of Abraham Lincoln touches off secession crisis. By Shannon Jones (World Socialist Web Site, 24 December 2010)
"Though not an abolitionist, Lincoln was an opponent of slavery and determined to use all means at his disposal to stop its spread."
Lincoln’s black history. By Garry Wills (The New York Review of Books, Vol.56, No.10, June 11, 2009). Review of Henry Louis Gates Jr., and Donald Yacovone (eds.), Lincoln on Race and Slavery (Princeton University Press, 2009)
"Abraham Lincoln was born into a racist family, in a racist region of our country, during a racist era of our history. It would have been amazing if he had not begun his life as a racist ... Gates thinks that this quantitative approach - how much racism did Lincoln exhibit at any time? - should be replaced by a qualitative question: What kinds of racism are at issue?"
Honor Abraham Lincoln! By Bert Mason (Workers Vanguard, No.938, 5 June 2009)
"Many opponents of revolutionary Marxism, from black nationalists to reformist leftists, have made a virtual cottage industry out of the slander that ’Honest Abe’ was a racist or even a white-supremacist."
Lincoln and the struggle to abolish slavery. By Alan Maass (Socialist Worker, February 12, 2009)
"Lincoln’s importance in history wasn’t as an abolitionist thinker - he did, indeed, hold backward ideas about race compared to other opponents of slavery - or as an organizer for the cause, but in the role he played in a specific historical situation."
In honor of the bicentenary of Abraham Lincoln and Charles Darwin. By Tom Eley (World Socialist Web Site, 12 February 2009)
"Lincoln played a central role in one of the great progressive struggles of modern history. The Civil War arose inexorably out of the fundamental contradictions left unresolved by the first American Revolution, which had proclaimed in stirring language the equality of man, and which had sanctioned the use of revolution to destroy all forms of tyranny."
Forced Into Glory: Abraham Lincoln’s White Dream. By Eric Foner (Los Angeles Times Book Review, April 9, 2000). Review of Lerone Bennett, Jr.’s book (Johnson Publishing, 2000)
"Which was the real Lincoln - the racist or the opponent of slavery? The unavoidable answer is: both. Bennett cannot accept that it was possible in nineteenth- century America to share the racial prejudices of the time, and yet simultaneously believe that slavery was a crime that ought to be abolished."
See also review by James M. McPherson: Lincoln the devil (The New York Times, August 27, 2000)
The two sides of Abraham Lincoln. By J.R. Johnson [ie. CLR James]
(The Militant, 14 February 1949)
"Enemy of the slave-power, a friend to the people. That was one side of Lincoln. But there was another which was widely known and commented upon in his own day."
Address of the International Working Men’s Association to Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States of America (November 1864). By Karl Marx (Marxists Internet Archive)
"We congratulate the American people upon your re-election by a large majority. If resistance to the Slave Power was the reserved watchword of your first election, the triumphant war cry of your re-election is Death to Slavery."
See also Marx and Engels: Writings on the U.S. Civil War (Marxists Internet Archive)
Steven Spielberg’s ’Lincoln’
- Lincoln (2012 film) (Wikipedia.org)
- Spielberg’s ’Lincoln’, Karl Marx, and the Second American Revolution. By Kevin Anderson (The International Marxist-Humanist, December 19, 2012)
- A filmmaker’s imagination, and a historian’s. By Kate Masur (The Cronicle of Higher Education, November 30, 2012)
- Paternalism and ass-Covering in Spielberg’s ’Lincoln’. By Louis Proyect (CounterPunch, November 30, 2012)
- The great uncompromiser. By Alan Maass (SocialistWorker.org, November 29, 2012)
- The trouble with Steven Spielberg’s ’Lincoln’. By Jon Wiener (The Nation, November 26, 2012)
- Steven Spielberg’s ’Lincoln’ and the historical drama of the Civil War. By Tom Mackaman (World Socialist Web Site, 12 November 2012)
- ’Lincoln’ against the radicals. By Aaron Bady (Jacobin, 11.26.12)
- Mere om filmen på X-ray: Lincoln
- Thaddeus Stevens and the legacy of radical reconstruction. By Gary McFarlane (Socialist Review, March 2013)
- Personliste om John Brown - guerilla mod slaveriet
- Tidslinjen 25. marts 1807 om forbuddet mod slavehandel
- Tidslinjen 17. februar 1818 om Frederick Douglass.
- Filmen Ærens mark / Glory (X-ray)
"Before 1862, a black regiment had been unheard of in the U.S. But on July 17, 1862, the Second Constitution and Militia Act was the first official authorization to employ Africans in federal service. In fall of 1862, there were at least 3 union regiments of Africans in New Orleans. In 1865, four million slaves were neither slaves nor citizens before the 14th Amendment was past. Slave holding states became a multimillion dollar industry in the 19th century. Americans lost more than 300,000 men in the Civil War. An Illinois lawyer states ’Liberty and slavery civilization and barbarism, one or the other must perish’." (Source: CivilWarSides)
Emneindex: USA / United States of America
Placering: Modkraft.dk/Tidsskriftcentret / Linksamlinger
Emneord: nordamerikanske krig, borgerkrigen, sydstaterne, nordstaterne.
Kritisk Debat (15. oktober 2012)
Med artikler om bl.a. SF, fagbevægelsen, økonomi, USA, Kina, Grækenland + debat.
International Socialism (nr.136, efterår 2012)
Med artikler om bl.a. Obama og USA, demokrati-begrebet, om den politiske teoretiker John Holloway, ’Chavs’ og klasser, Keynes og marxistisk kriseanalyse, Grækenland og Syriza + boganmeldelser.
Irish Marxist Review (nr.3, 2012)
Med artikler om bl.a. krisen i Eurozonen, Keynesianisme og krisen, forsvar for leninismen, myter og realiteter om den svenske velfærdsstat + om den franske filosof Alan Badiou.
Logos: a journal of modern society & culture
- Vol.11, No.4: Special Election issue: What is at stake in the 2012 Election?
- Vol.11, No.2-3: Med artikler om bl.a. Egypten, den arabiske revolution, George Orwell, Ruth Fischer + boganmeldelser.
Jump Cut: a review of contemporay media (nr.54, efterår 2012)
Med temaer om bl.a.: Asian + Latin America media; Themes in Hollywood: Race/ethnicity, The Mideast, History; Documentary; Experimental and new media + Critical analyses: The rape-revenge film: biocultural implications.
Radical America (1967-1987)
"A digital edition of Radical America, a product of the campus-based New Left of the late 1960s, specifically the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), but the magazine long outlived its seedbed." Se om tidsskriftets historie + online-udgaver af de enkelte numre.
Marxism and Revolution Today
Video recordings of the weekend school held by International Socialism on 22 and 23 September 2012.
Debates about The Arab revolutions, Eastern Europe 1989 and the ’colour revolutions’ 2003-05, South Africa, Latin America, Contemporary problems of revolutionary politics.
Links med socialistiske konferenceoplæg, nye marxistiske bøger og en marxistisk økonomisk blogger.
Radical economic theories of the current economic crisis (pdf, 23 sider)
Union of Radical Political Economics, sommerkonference 2012.
Med bidrag fra Steve Keen, Andrew Kliman, David M. Kotz, Arthur MacEwan, Fred Moseley, Thomas I. Palley, Jack Rasmus, Michael Roberts, Anwar Shaikh og Richard Wolff.
Marxist books on the global financial crisis and capitalism
Linkbox med et udvalg af nyere marxistiske bøger på engelsk. Med anmeldelser, debat og interviews - og nye bøger tilføjet af Mick Brooks, Guglielmo Carchedi, Gerard Duménil, Andrew Kliman og Paul Mattick, jr. + årbogen Socialist Register 2012.
Michael Robert - blogging from a Marxist economist
"First-rate Marxist political economy, deployed for both analysis and polemic, lucidly explained and supported by illuminating graphs and tables."
Basen er delvis nede p.t.
28. februar | Hvad indebærer begrebet om en mangfoldighed af taktikker for Occupy Wall Street? Således spørger Nathan Schneider, der selv er med i bevægelsen, i den nye bog »Vi er de 99%«.
19. februar | Den meget omtalte og roste spillefilmsdebut fra Mads Mathiesen gør det nemt for publikum. Læs her hvorfor en af QueerKrafts anmeldere blev blød i knæene og nu ønsker sig en (...)
27. februar | Direktøren i det norske Finansnæringens Arbeidsgiverforening mener, at kønskvoter er det bedste, der er sket for Norges globale konkurrencedygtighed.
27. februar | Mens vi udfordres af februarkulden, har løbere sat hinanden i stævne nær Tindouf i Algeriet. Deres udfordring er varmen og 42,195 kilometers løb gennem ørkenen.
29. februar | 10:40
28. februar | 09:23
27. februar | 17:01
27. februar | 08:52
27. februar | 01:22
26.februar | 11:57
Billeder fra demoen mod ACTA lørdag d. 25/2-2012
Lavet af Filip S - http://lilit.dk
26. februar | Af Knud Vilby
Nu får vi masser af reformer, men kommer de sociale reformer til at hænge sammen?
Søren Søndergaard. Medlem af EU-parlamentet for Folkebevægelsen mod EU. September 2010.